learning and teaching b.ed notes concept of teaching. What are the basic principles of teaching . CRSU/MDU/KUK B.Ed notes


Explain the concept of teaching. What are the basic principles of teaching ?



 A society with democratic ideals attempts continuously to improve its programs and agencies for serving the common welfare of all citizens. It attempts to insure these improvements chiefly by establishing schools through which the society accepts interests and needs that each youth feels may be discovered and cultivated. It seeks through education to develop in each young citizen a strong feeling of need and responsibility for contributing his special abilities and understanding to the cooperative development of better solutions to the increasingly complex problems of modern living. Although success in teaching is facilitated by scientific knowledge of human nature and of the conditions under which individuals grow and learn, an effective teacher is primarily an artist rather than a scientist. He is original and creative in discovering ways to help each individual to develop his own potentialities for living a life that is both satisfying to himself and useful to his fellow men.



 Teaching in simple terms is referred to as either an occupation on profession of a group known as teachers or an activity or activities of a group undertaken to help an individual to learn or acquire some knowledge, skills, attitudes or interests. Teaching is meant to help in learning. The teacher can motivate students to take interest in learning can guide to have those experiences by which he can learn facts, attitudes or skills. The concept of teaching is changing and due to these changing concepts now education has not remained the right of limited few last now it has become the right of everyone. Teaching becomes complete when learning in also added to it. Hearing is complementary to teaching. By all means and any shape it is always designed within a social context and therefore, is related to the social structured cultural environment, values, and ideals of the people, society and the government. All these factors always stand for the flexibility and dynamism and therefore the meaning and definitions of teaching have always been in a slate of change depending on the need of time, place and society. Some of these definitions are presented as follows

 H.C. Morrisom (1934):-

 "Teaching is an intimate contest between a more mature personality and a less mature one which is designed to further the educations of the latter."

 John Brubacher (1939) :-

 "Teaching is an arrangement and manipulation of a situation in which there are gaps and obstructions which on individual will seek to overcome and from which he will learn in the course of doing so.

 B.O. Smith (1960):-

Teaching is a system of actions intended to produce learning

 N.L. Gage (1962):-

Teaching is a form of interpersonal influence aimed at changing the behavior potential of another person.

 B.O. Smith (1963):-

 Teaching is a system of actions involving an agent, an end in view and a situation including two sets of factors on which the control (class, size, size of classroom, physical characteristics of pupils etc) and agent has those that he can modify (way of asking questions about instruction and structuring information or ideas gleaned.)

 Edmund Amidon (1967):-

 Teaching is defined as an interactive process primarily involving classroom talk which takes place between teachers and pupils and occurs during certain definable activities.



1. A complex social process


2. Both art as well as science


3. A professional activity


4. An output of teacher's efforts


5. An organized system of varied action.


6. An amenable to scientific observation and analysis.


7. Highly dominated by the communication skill.


8. An interactive process


9. Have various forms and styles


10. A specialized task compressing of different teaching skills.




We can understand the importance of teaching by observing few points which are given below:


1. Good teaching creates way of learning.


2. It is sympathetic.


3. It is cooperative and suggestive.


4. It is stimulating


5. Good Teaching is progressive.


6. Good Teaching is democratic


7. Good Teaching is both diagnostic and remedial 

8. Good Teaching encourages self learning.


9. Good Teaching librates child and mind.



 There are some general principles of teaching that have emerged from the general experiences, traditions and new researches in the field of education and pedagogy.

 1. Principles of Planning - The desired goals in a teaching at may be achieved smoothly and effectively through proper planning. 2. Principle of flexibility and elasticity: - The principle of flexibility and elasticity needs to be observed for enabling the teacher to deal effectively with the aroused situation.

 3. Principle of utilizing past experience: - What a teacher teaches should be properly linked with the already acquired knowledge and experience.

4. Principle of Child Centredness: - Teaching is aimed to bring about desirable changes in the behaviour of a child. 

5. Principle of making provision for individual differences :- The teaching which does not cater to the needs and abilities of individual child, cannot be expected to achieve specific goals of bringing desirable changes in the behaviour of all the children. 

6. Principle of linking with actual life: - Teaching should never be confined to the classroom or school boundaries, but should be invariably linked with actual life.

7. Principle of effective strategies and instructional material: - Teaching process for its success, also demands effective strategies, means and materials. 

8. Principle of correlating with other subjects: - The study of a particular subject definitely helps the learning of many things in other subjects.

 9. Principle of active participation and Involvement: - A good teaching should always to be a two way traffic, making the task of teaching a cooperative effort of the teacher and the taught.

 10. Principle of conductive environment and proper control: - The role of conductive and effective management or control of the teaching-learning situation can never be divided in any teaching.

 11. Principle of definiteness of goals or objectives: - The personality of a good teaching is always enhanced by observing the principle of definiteness of goal or objectives


 Educationists and teachers engaged in the task of actual class-room teaching have evolved certain simple notions and working ways based on our experiences which may prove quite helpful in the task of teaching. These are known maxims of teaching. We discuss some of the important ones.

 From known to unknown:-

 Known can always prove reliable base for making acquaintance with the unknown. Thus the previous knowledge of a particular subject or topic may help us to collect new information and explore the unknown

 From definite to indefinite:-

 Definite things, concepts events or knowledge may be easily approached for catching the indefinite ones.

 From simple to complex:-

 Proceeding from simple to complex or easy to difficult always provides a appropriate learning order or sequence. This sequence provides an automatic reinforcement, motivation, aspiration to move towards more difficult and builds his mastery in difficult and complex concepts.

 From concrete to abstract:-

 The concrete material is to be shown, living examples are to be given to make learning easy and to acquire new knowledge. These direct experiences help an individual to learn the abstract concepts.

 From particular to general:-

 Generalized facts principles, concepts and phenomenon are quite abstract in nature, therefore a teacher should always begin with the learning or experiencing of the particular case, facts, or instances then persuade his student to generalize or conclude.

 From whole to parts:-

 The knowledge of a whole is always understandable, motivating and effective. Therefore beginning should always be made with the whole and then step-by-step it's various parts or constituents should be presented before the students.

 From Induction to deduction:-

 In teaching a teacher is required to place particular instances, examples, facts or experiences before the students. On the basis of similar properties and repetitions of phenomenon a student is able to form a generalized concept, rule and principles. Here beginning is made by placing the generalized fact, principle formula or rule before the students and they are asked to verify the truth of the generalization by applying it in particular instance or examples.

 From analysis to synthesis:-

 Analysis refers to a process of breaking or separating out a thing into the simpler parts, elements or constituents where as synthesis refers to process of combining the different elements or parts of a thing in totality. As analysis represents a systematic, formative approach it is quite applicable to the beginning of a learning or teaching act.

 From empirical to rational –

 In a teaching-learning process it is always fruitful to begin with what we see, feel and experience rather than only what we agree, generalize or explained. Thus a teacher has to place facts, evidences, direct and indirect experiences, examples full of objectivity and validity to arrive at some conclusion or develop a rational point of view in understanding the nature and concepts of the objects, events and phenomenon,

 From psychological to logical –

 In the psychological point of view the planning a organization of teaching activities are based on child's needs, interests, abilities and capacities but a wise teacher integrates his teaching activities with psychological principles as well as logic in planning, learning experiences teaching strategies, evaluation activities and feedback devices.



Iearning and Teaching notes study material for b.ed first year and b.ed second year crsu mdu kuk cdlu cblu igu du all other university

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